recordings (also known as underground recordings):
A form of music piracy that involves the unauthorized recording
of a musical broadcast on radio or television or of a live concert.
To create a playable CD (a CD-R) by loading a digital recording
onto a blank CD to fill a specific order.
Disc-Recordable): A blank disc that can be loaded with sound
recordings by technology available for use on a personal computer.
Devices that load sound recordings onto blank compact disks.
The legal right to reproduce, adapt, distribute, perform publicly
and display a work of intellectual property. Sound recordings
have two copyrights, one each on the following:
- the underlying
musical work (notes and lyrics)
- the actual
recording itself (the artistís interpretation and the work of
the producers, engineers and backup musicians as fixed on the
CD, cassette or videotape)
grants the owner a "bundle of rights," which includes the rights
to reproduce, distribute, adapt, perform publicly and display
the copyrighted work. Certain of these rights are implicated by
an Internet transmission of music. For example, loading a sound
recording into a server for future transmissions, making a real-time
transmission of a sound recording or downloading a sound recording
(either temporarily or permanently) to a listenerís computer --
each triggers the rights of the copyright owners of the two works
embodied in the sound recording.
recordings: A form of music piracy that involves the unauthorized
recording or duplication of prerecorded sounds as well as the
unauthorized duplication of original artwork, label, trademark
The awarding of rights to perform, reproduce, distribute or digitally
transmit a copyrighted work. Performance rights usually come from
one of three organizations that represent songwriters and publishers:
The American Society of Composers,
Authors and Publishers, Broadcast
Music Inc. or SESAC. Reproduction,
distribution and digital transmission rights usually come from
the original recording company. The RIAA as a trade association
does not have licensing authority. However, it is helping to negotiate
and administer the "statutory licenses" prescribed by law for
certain kinds of digital transmissions of sound recordings.
A computer technology that allows
a composition to be transcribed into musical notation by playing
it at the keyboard. Once in computer-represented form, virtually
ever aspect of the digitized sound -- pitch, attack, tempo, etc.
-- can be edited and altered.
A computer file created with compression technology
commonly used to make digital audio computer files relatively
small while maintaining high audio quality.
archive site: An Internet site on the World Wide Web or elsewhere
that contains copyrighted recordings of songs or whole albums
available illegally for downloading via digital technology onto
a personal computer. See LAWS.
piracy: The general term referring to the illegal duplication
and distribution of sound recordings, comprised of four specific
forms: bootleg recordings, counterfeit recordings, pirate recordings
and online piracy.
piracy: A form of music piracy that involves the unauthorized
transfer of sound recordings from Internet sites.
recordings: A form of music piracy involving the unauthorized
duplication of only the sound of legitimate recordings.
Act, H.R. 2265: This 1997 legislation addresses criminal
copyright issues, specifically facilitating the criminal prosecution
of pirate bulletin board systems and Web sites in which the financial
arrangements surrounding pirate distribution are often unconventional.
It defines for the first time the "willfulness" element needed
to establish criminal liability, steering a path between strict
liability and any requirement to prove a defendant intended to
violate the copyright law. The NET Act deals only with criminal
liability and has no impact on civil liability (including service
provider liability) for copyright infringement.